When striving for gender balance in a play: What is more important, balance among the characters or among the actors? (Given that all characters are written as individuals, and not as stereotypes.)

Background (if needed):

This is a question that came up when deciding characters for a student project. We are writing a play and after the writing is finished we cast who plays what character (The actors are not chosen among the writers, but from a larger pool of students.)

In previous years, the characters have been 50% of each gender or off by one (if there were an uneven number of characters), but with little or no consideration given to gender when casting. (Meaning that, every year, there are some actors who play a character of the opposite gender, depending on what character is most suitable for that actor.) Since there are closer to 75% males at school, the gender balance of the actors have never been even.

This year a theme was proposed that gave little room to female characters to exist or have a substantial role.

Some of the writers argued that this was a bad thing when striving for gender balance, since females would be underrepresented or in the background.

Others in the group argued that it was the actors' gender that mattered, and that raising the question about the characters gender was a step back for gender equality since we would make gender an issue.

Update (one year later)

We decided to do the theme with few female characters and here are some observations, in case someone has a similar situation in the future.


  • Several that have been part of the project over several years had longed for this theme. They (and others) got exited and had fun with the theme.


  • Not everyone that only wanted to play a female character could because of the lack of these. We told them this and some of the actors changed their choice to 'indifferent'. In the end only one actor that really wanted to play female couldn't but he states that he is happy anyway.

  • We got some negative feedback that can be summed up as degrees of "all student theatre projects [at this school] are sexist". (We are the only project of this kind that allows both female and male participants, the others are only male or only female, not sure what they would do if a non-binary person applied.)

  • Sidenote: Some also was disappointed that we had only characters with binary gender and hetro sexuality (we have had a few characters previous years with non-binary gender or non-hetro sexuality). This was also a direct result of the theme. It was not raised in the question here though.


  • This years new students (the ones that saw the play spoken of and decided whether or not to apply to this years play) was about the same number as previous years, and the gender ratio is about same as well. I hope this mean no one was deterred to apply because of last years female-light theme.
  • 6
    This... might be a little bit out of our scope. I'm not sure it's a writing question; it touches more directly on education, event planning, and gender representation. But you're asking how to write in order to achieve a certain effect, which seems fair. Hmmm. Opinions?
    – Standback
    Commented Jun 11, 2013 at 21:04
  • Sorry, but this way, they would have to rewrite 300 so there are 150 women... And what about the Founding Fathers? They would have to change Benjamin Franklin to Betty in all childrens' play. Commented Jun 11, 2013 at 21:31
  • Discussion Question: How would your group react if you chose an all-female theme, and most of the guy actors needed to play girls?
    – Standback
    Commented Jun 12, 2013 at 6:22
  • @DarekWędrychowski: The alternative was to not go with that theme for this project, not change the gender of the characters. Commented Jun 12, 2013 at 7:47
  • 1
    Drakryttare, thanks for letting us know how this panned out!
    – Standback
    Commented Nov 14, 2014 at 6:53

5 Answers 5


Obviously, both female participation and female representation are important.

Female participation is more immediately important, because you're dealing with your actual students, and it's crucial that the girls be able to participate just as much as the boys. That being said, this isn't a one-or-the-other case - quite the opposite, since the easiest way of letting the girls participate is to have roles for them.

Gender Balance IS An Issue

You write:

Others in the group argued that it was the actors gender that matter and that raising the question about the characters gender was a step back for gender equality since we would make gender an issue.

This is an ongoing argument, and this isn't the place to rule definitively one way or another - but this point needs some attention. Gender representation is very much an ongoing issue, and many people care about it deeply. It is disingenuous to claim that since some people don't see a problem, then the people who do should be disregarded.

In theater, it is still the case that there are fewer and more limited roles for women than for men. In popular media in general, women are often portrayed with less richness and variety than men are. There is a common perception that the "default" character is male, and women are a specific exception - less common, and almost always placed in one of a few stereotypical roles. Many people see this as extremely problematic.

The Bechdel Test captures this disparity by pointing out how rare it is to see a portrayal of two women having a discussion concerning their interests, not centered around men. The interest here is not in whether one specific movie, story, or play "passes" or "fails" the test - a piece can be terrific and even feminist without "passing" the Bechdel Test, and a piece can "pass" and still be overwhelmingly mysoginistic. The value is in the aggregate - the realization that these seemingly trivial requirements are very rarely met. And to a large extent, this happens because many, many creators make the choice to go with their "default" preferences without examining them for gender balance, and because those "default" preferences happen to marginalize women (because that's kinda what we're used to). That is exactly the situation you're describing here - your group defaulted to a male-centric show, and some actively object to straying from that default. It's not wrong, but when everybody does that, the result is problematic.

...but is it your issue?

All that being said, the fact that some people favor proactive gender-balancing doesn't mean that your school and your play are necessarily obligated to that battle. If, in general, all the individual participants are cool with the show you're planning, then you're no more obligated to champion gender balance in your production than you are to take a firm stance on the Middle East. If your choice is between a terrific show that everybody's happy with, but happens to be male-centric, and a desperate search for something more "politically correct" - the first choice is perfectly legitimate. Again, there's nothing wrong with portraying male characters - the problem is the lack of portrayal of female characters. You could even commit to doing a female-centric show next year - that'd be a different type of balance.

Bottom Line

In my mind, the two primary points are these:

  • This is a student production. The students should enjoy it. Both the boys and the girls - which means, at very least, the girls shouldn't be barred from getting good roles just because they're female. It also implies that if you feel many actresses would be uncomfortable playing men, than that might be a good reason to avoid this kind of play. (In my experience in community theater, some are fine with it, some aren't. A lot of girls feel like they're being cast in a role that "wasn't meant for them," which can feel a little second-rate. On the other hand, some really enjoy having a wider scope of casting opportunities and more varied roles to play. Often the same actress will appreciate both points.)
  • Lack of gender balance in the play's characters is a legitimate criticism. This is a real issue and many people care deeply about it. It is wrong to dismiss the criticism as irrelevant or incorrect - it is legitimate, and worth taking into account. That being said, it's one point of criticism among many - there's no reason to give it veto power unless it's that important to the actual participants. "This play doesn't have major female characters" is no more nor less a problem than "This play is too long," "This play is out of our budget," "This play plays mental illness for laughs," "This play is too hard for our actors," etc. etc. It's a perfectly valid concern; presumably, every option you're looking at has valid concerns. Take it under consideration, weigh it fairly against other issues on hand, and do what you can to address the concern. No more, no less.

Since at the moment you're still at the very beginning of planning and writing, and since the topic has obviously come up as significant for at least some participants, I think it would be appropriate to devote a little bit of effort to come up with alternate proposals that don't have the gender-balance problem. Since this isn't an either/or decision, and it's perfectly possible to find a play that has female actresses and characters, I would look for that first. At very least, you'll have options to compare instead of one proposal to approve or reject.


In a play the gender role that matters most is the 'characters' because they are conveying or telling the story to the audience to understand. In fact some actors are not too good for a specific character so you get someone who suits that character you want. Thank you.


I think you already answered your question: among the actors. If not, why would gender balance be important in the play at all?

No play or book should limited by the sex of the characters, being just a fictional work. Sometimes that may count due to some specific theme the author wants to create but, apart from that, it shouldn't matter at all. You are asking that question exactly because you want to be have a proportional quota for each sex of your fellow students - aka human beings, aka actors - not among the characters.

Your concern is the people, not the characters and, as you already said, you don't care if an actor plays the role of a female character and vice-versa. Just let the best actors - male or female - play the roles that fit better.


I know this question is really old, but I saw it and wanted to say something for anyone who finds this question and reads it. Is the character's gender important to the story?

TL;DR It depends on whether the gender of the character is important to the story. If the gender of the character is important, keep the gender of the character the same and look for an actor of the same gender if someone of the opposite gender can't portray the character the way the director would like. If the gender of the character is not important, the director or whoever is running the play can change the gender of the character to match that of the actor.

Recently (as of writing this) I was in a musical where the main character is a male. The character was male in the source material that the musical was based on, the character was referred to as a male by all the characters in the play, etc. However, the character was acted by a girl. Because of the plot of the play, the gender of the character doesn't really matter. A few characters had specific genders that would have looked odd if they were changed, although the main character worked as either a man or a woman. What it sounds like is that some of the people want to honor the original version of the play by having the actors' gender match the characters'. Depending on who is directing the show, the director may decide that the characters gender doesn't matter. However, a compromise that can be used is to have actors portray characters that are of a different gender than themselves. What I mean is, say the character Alex is a boy. Candace is a girl and wants to play Alex. Candace can play Alex by pretending to be a boy or, if Alex being a boy is not important to the story, the director can change Alex to Alexa, Avery, whatever and Candace can play them.


There is no right or wrong answer to this question. There are different viewpoints and interests that you may or may not want to consider, depending on the circumstances:

  1. A specific story may demand certain genders. For example, a story set in a boy's school will have few female characters, if any.

  2. A specific audience may demand certain genders. For example, readers of a certain gender may want to read about characters that are similar to themselves for them to feel relevant.

  3. A specific client may demand certain genders. For example, a school may require all genders to be represented equally, or the actors in a play may prefer to play certain genders.

All these and more interests can be in conflict with each other.

If you write a novel, you are more free to choose your audience and you don't have to deal with actors or institutional demands. If you write a school play, you are writing a commissioned work and your client gets to decide what you write for them.

That is, in your case:

Understand who your client is and let them tell you what they want.

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