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I am writing a historical paper about Operation Mincemeat for National History Day. While there is a rule book, it doesn’t clarify a lot of the little details.

Also, if you are supposed to include them in separate footnotes, does that rule still apply if it is within the same sentence?

Additionally, should you write “and” between the page numbers, should you use a semicolon, or should you do something else entirely?

Ex:

  1. Macintyre, Operation Mincemeat, 19 and 39-41. OR
  2. Macintyre, Operation Mincemeat, 19.
  3. Macintyre, Operation Mincemeat, 39-41.

2 Answers 2

1

If multiple sources are relevant for a single citation, indicate all sources in one note. Example for different sources:

Bla bla bla.1


1 Bob, His Book, p. 12; Frank, What He Wrote, p. 45.

Example for different pages from the same source:

Bla bla bla.2


2 Bob, His Book, pp. 12, 85, 147.

You'll need to look in your style guide for what to do if the pages you cite from are consecutive. Some style guides prescribe something like "pp. 53ff.", others require "pp. 53-59".


I don't know what your style guide says about giving pages with or without "p." (the abbreviation for page). I've included it here to show how to use "pp." (the abbreviation for the plural pages) when citing from multiple sequential pages. If your style guide recommends not to use an abbreviation for page or pages, just delete them from my examples. The rest of my examples remains the same:

Bla bla bla.2


2 Bob, His Book, 12, 85, 147.

1

For an academic style, every source gets its own reference, but not so much in footnotes as a list at the end of the paper or book under "References".

Every source gets its own number, and within the text the references are enclosed in square brackets.

For example,

"Hally, Michaels and Swan claimed this was known in papers published in 1831, 1837 and 1838 [17, 33, 48], but Quinn provided the first known proof of the theorem in 1845 [52]."

This is what I was taught in graduate school. I've read medical textbooks with literally thousands of references, and dozens of them on a single page.

If the same reference is used with multiple pages, then the pages are not put in the footnote, but in the references with 'p.' or 'pp.' (for page or pages). This is less important for academic publications under 20 pages; more important for books or other works containing dozens or hundreds of pages. For example:

"Hally, Michaels and Swan claimed this was known in papers published in 1831, 1837 and 1838 [17, 33 pp. 18-20, 48 p. 19], but Quinn provided the first known proof of the theorem in 1845 [52, pp. 35-42]."

An alternative is instead of the number to use the author's name, but this can get very unwieldy with papers that have many authors; in this case it is often just the first name and "et al" used for the name.

"There were claims this was known in papers published in 1831, 1837 and 1838 [Hally; Michaels, pp. 18-20; Swan, p. 19], but the first known proof of the theorem was published in 1845 [Quinn et al, pp. 35-42]."

Usually the date of the publication, the full title, the authors, how to find the publication, etc is in References section at the end. Yet another alternative is to include the date in the in-text reference:

"Although there were early claims this theorem was known [Hally, 1831; Michaels, 1837, pp. 18-20; Swan, 1838, p. 19], the first known proof of the theorem was published in 1845 [Quinn et al, 1845, pp. 35-42]."

Of course these could be done in footnotes as well, for legibility, but the form doesn't change. There is leeway in the style, but generally your references are inline, and you provide enough information (somewhere) to let the reader actually find the work and specific page if they are so inclined.

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