"A garden path sentence is a grammatically correct sentence that starts in such a way that a reader's most likely interpretation will be incorrect; the reader is lured into a parse that turns out to be a dead end." A classic example, used by Wikipedia, is "Time flies like an arrow; fruit flies like a banana."
Obviously such a forced changing of interpretation suits humor, which generally works via a turn in expectation and is tolerant of nonsense. (As Wikipedia notes, paraprosdokian "is extremely popular among comedians and satirists.") However, turns of expectation are a more broadly used literary device, so garden path sentences should have at least limited utility outside of humor.
Closely related to satirical use, a garden path sentence might be used in argumentation to abruptly transition from conceding points in an opposing position to refutation of those points. Rhetorically, even a small portion of nonsense might be permitted as such might have a satirical (attributing the nonsense to the opposing position) rather than illogical (attributing it to the argument itself) feel.
In fiction, the confusion in the reader might mirror a character's confusion, whether from lack of intellect, lack of knowledge, or contradiction of preconceptions, allowing an intelligent, knowledgeable, open-minded reader greater sympathy with the character. Similarly, situational uncertainty (e.g., a twist of fate) might be reinforced or foreshadowed by such grammatical turn.
Another possible use might be adjusting the pace of the story, particularly moving startling from a lulling slow pace to a more rapid pace. Forcing the reader to reinterpret a sentence might wake the reader and introduce a pause like an auctioneer taking a breath. In a similar way, it might be possible to use the distraction of the reader to intensify the sense of surprise when an unexpected event immediately follows.
A garden path sentence might also be useful at the end of a division to encourage reflection. Just as the reader is forced to pause and rethink the sentence, so the pause and reflective attitude might be extended more broadly backward to the preceding writing.
In addition to how garden path sentences can be used constructively, I am also interested in what dangers the construct presents. Misuse can take of form of simply wrong or merely poorly executed. The use of concrete examples is encouraged.