Uncertainty and suspense don't translate exactly to tension in a story
In a story tension needs to be set up (before our roll occurs in the game), and then either released or escalated. In a roleplaying game, there might only be tension because of a result, so in game we do some retroactive storytelling.
For example, if in a game we try and fail to convince the university bursar to pay for guards in the magical menagerie, we can retroactively say our argument wasn't convincing because they hadn't slept properly, or were conspiring against our characters. In the story we narrate this tension (and thus provide uncertainty/suspense) before our character tries to persuade them, even though in game it was added afterwards.
We can still look at different types of dice rolls, and how they need to be interpreted differently. We'll see, though, how they impact the tension in the narrative is more down to circumstance and reaction from the player/characters than the result however.
If the die roll doesn't represent chance
Then there is no tension to translate:
Timoen: Can I roll to see if Tolopher has heard of the Mega-Hippogiff?
DM Alex: Give me an Arcane skill check using Intelligence.
Translates just as easily to:
In all their time at the academy Tolopher had never heard of the Mega-Hippogriff, but as it barreled towards them they were going to find out
Tolopher heard the bestial call, and filling with dread, instantly remembered the Mega-Hippogriff.
In the first example, our tension comes from the circumstances, in the second it's not from uncertainty but from how the result impacts the character. Instead maybe the Mega-Hippogriff, despite the name is cute and fluffy? We just change the word 'dread' to 'relief', and see that the dice didn't determine if there should have been tension or not. If the Mega-Hippogriff was posing no threat at the time, then there's be no tension regardless of the die roll (unless, you add it in).
This works for other skill checks, even if there's normally consequences. You can either manufacture it or pull tension in from elsewhere:
Timoen: I want Tolopher to open the lock on the restricted section in the library, maybe there's a scroll in there
DM Alex: Roll Sleight of Hand DC 35
There's no innate consequence to failing the roll, and could be narrated as:
Tolopher knew this was a long shot, and with the sounds of the Mega-Hippogriff growing louder behind them, fumbled with the ancient lock and their thieves tools. Click... Click... Snap. 'Drat,' they thought, they'd have no luck getting into the restricted section then.
Tolopher knew this was a long shot, but with nobody and no pressure around they played with the ancient lock and their thieves tools. Click... Click... Snap. 'Nevermind,' they thought, they'd have no luck getting into the restricted section then.
The tension is clearly not from the dice roll, but the consequences of said roll (which is what differed in the two version), the how character approaches the die roll and how they react.
If the die roll determines the extent of an effect that's guaranteed
The tension already exists, and it released or escalated not if something happens but if the something that happens is enough.
Timoen: I cast Magic Missile at the Mega-Hippogriff!
DM Alex: You get 5 darts, so roll 1d4+1 5 times
Could translate as:
Tolopher was growing desperate, if the Mega-Hippogriff continued it's rampage it would destroy the library - something they couldn't let happen. With an simple spell, they sent out 5 darts of magical energy towards the enraged beast. As they flew from Tolopher's hand, their only thought was if the spell would be enough to stop it.
You get the tension (from the set up) whether the damage rolled is enough or not; because it existed before the result and the dice only determine how the tension is resolved or escalated.
Now, if that damage is enough or not to change the narrative and how that impacts the tension is down to the circumstance (the continued rampage) and the character (see how we prefaced the snippet with Timoen's state of desperation?).
We can reduce tension based on the result,
The beast easily shrugged off the darts of energy, "No worry," thought Tolopher, "I'm just getting started"
Or increase it,
The beast easily shrugged off the darts of energy, "That's not possible," thought Tolopher, "I'm out of ideas!"
But that never creates the readers uncertainty, or provides suspense. It just informs us how to describe the tension
If a failed die roll advances the story
Let's go back to the Timoen's character trying to get into the restricted section of the library,
DM Alex: Roll Sleight of Hand DC 35, if you fail the librarian-guards will be alerted
And we can adjust our narrative accordingly:
Click... Click... Snap. 'Drat,' they thought, they'd have no luck getting into the restricted section then. Instead, now Tolopher would have to explain themselves to whomever had heard the loud snap.
Tension is escalated, but the set up (the impending Mega-Hippogriff) came before the result, we merely ramp it up on a failed roll. We could even narrate the librarian guards intercepting the Mega-Hippogriff, resolving both lots of tension. But whether that happened or not is part of the original game's narative.
If a successful die roll advances the story
Let's assume they somehow pass the skill check in the game,
We could release tension,
Click... Click... Clunk. 'Yes,' they thought, not sure whether to thank skill or luck. Relieved, Tolopher entered the dusty room, surely they could find a spell to defeat the Mega-Hippogriff here.
Or escalate it,
Click... Click... Clunk. 'Yes,' they thought, not sure whether to thank skill or luck. Apprehensive, Tolopher entered the dusty room, if they were to find a spell to defeat the Mega-Hippogriff, they'd have to be quick about it.
Again, whereas in the game, we don't know how the character will react to the die roll result, and there's suspense because of it, now how the story pans out we can just use the result to flavour our narrative.
As I've tried to explain, in the game, the uncertainty and suspense are drivers of excitement, but when looking back at the game, it's much more important to see under what circumstances the dice roll happened and why there was suspense in the first place. How the characters react is a bigger factor in the story than the dice roll.