The curse words you use affect the tone of your story
You can use any words you like to represent cursing in your story. Options include real curses, 'baby' curse words (e.g. 'fudged or 'heck'), fake curse words (e.g. 'frack' or 'shells'), foreign curse words, described curses (e.g. "she shouted something crude') or even, yes, symbols instead of curse words. Symbols have a long tradition of being used to represent curses, particularly in comics, and their use as such will be widely recognized.
But the choice you make matters, and it can be jarring if the curse words you pick don't match the tone of the story. Can you imagine if the characters in Game of Thrones ran around saying "fudge" or "dang"? Or consider the effect it had, when after seven books of "Merlin's Beard!" Molly Weasley yells out "NOT MY DAUGHTER, YOU BITCH!"
Symbolic cursing is strongly associated with comics, particularly comics for younger audiences. If your book is aimed at such audiences, or is trying to set a lighthearted tone then symbolic cursing won't feel out of place. But if you are trying to write a serious or tonally dark book, then symbolic cursing will likely undercut the emotions you are trying to evoke.