The point of an essay is to make a point. Sorry about that. It just slipped out.
Still, it is a valid statement. An essay should take the reader from a "You Are Here" vantage point to a new, hopefully more enlightened, vantage point. The job of the essayist is to find, and refine, a path that makes that journey as easy as possible.
The first task is to attract the attention of the reader. In this modern (read "cluttered") world, that ain't easy. Somehow, you have to craft a hook, emotional or intellectual or humorous, that draws the reader in. Puppies, kittens, grandchildren, long standing traditions, calls to arms, whatever it takes to convince the reader that something of value is to be had by reading on.
What should you pick? It depends. On who you are and what you feel comfortable writing about. On who you want/expect to read and accept the work. On your skill as a writer. On so many other things. This is why writing can be difficult. But, if done well, the writer does the heavy lifting so that the reader does not have to.
Your next task, is to take the reader from that initial hook to the next way station in the journey. Again, the ways of doing this are infinite. But a time-honored approach is to put those lovely elements that you used to attract the reader in the first place in danger. Puppies in cages, kittens bedraggled, grandchildren turned to the dark side. "If we do not act, BAD THINGS WILL (CONTINUE TO) HAPPEN!" Or maybe the tragedy is that desirable potentialities will not be achieved.
Oh, what should we do to avert this unbearable pain? Again, there are an infinite set of possibilities. Think this way, write to this list of people, sign property over to these parties, speak out, vote, take to the streets. Explain how the proposed course of action reverses the trend, fixes the problem, makes us all into heroes.
Finally, it may well be the case that the journey requires a number of sub-journeys. Then you have to lay out the path, groom the walkway, put up signage, and provide snacks at key stops along the way. All in service of the desire to keep the reader moving in the desired direction.