Let's say you decide to claim that time is absolute and not relative as Einstein said. Can you still use a title like "Einstein's time", "Relativity of time", "The geometry of time", "Time dilatation", etc? Why? I sometimes feel there's a gray area where it could be alright, but it's hard for me to identify them, but for a seasoned writer it could be a lot easier. What do you think?
You can. You are writing a critique of something, and that is the thing in the title.
I could write an article "Cash Bail" and argue how cash bail (in the USA) is discriminatory because it allows rich people to await trial out of jail while forcing poor people that cannot afford thousands of dollars in bail to remain in jail, thus being punished.
Just because you name something in your Title, isn't a promise of what you will say about it. It is a promise that this is what you will be writing about. It shouldn't be misleading.
Of course you can. You may choose whichever title you wish for your story. Titles may contain elements of ambiguity, they may be nuanced, cryptic, sarcastic, or any combination of the aforementioned.
"The Taking of Pelham 123"
On its face the title of this film refers to the hijacking of a train bound for Pelham (the train's ID# being 123). But consider the writer's choice of number '123'. The expression is synonymous with 'as easy as'. Thus we have a different take on the title.
From my own work . . .
The Life of Riley
This title appears to allude to the expression meaning: an easy, carefree life. However, this is not the case. The story is about a young female athlete who finds herself confined to a wheelchair after a tragic accident. (The character's name happens to be Jackie Riley).
Simple and straight forward? Perhaps not - the story is literally about a blind woman going on a date.