Having scoured the internet for a bit, I have found two style guides which I have not read myself, but which sound like they do at least part of what you are looking for.
The first one is called The Economist Style Guide and is available on the website of The Economist. It's a general style guide for the English language, so it might not be directly a tool for learning different ways of phrasing specific sentences, but it might still offer some good advice.
The second one is The Elements of Style by Strunk and White. Again, a general style guide. I'll let the Amazon description speak for itself:
You know the authors' names. You recognize the title. You've probably used this book yourself. This is The Elements of Style, the classic style manual, now in a fourth edition. A new Foreword by Roger Angell reminds readers that the advice of Strunk & White is as valuable today as when it was first offered.This book's unique tone, wit and charm have conveyed the principles of English style to millions of readers. Use the fourth edition of "the little book" to make a big impact with writing.
That sounds generally badass.
Personally, I really like The Economist's style, which is the kind of style that is used by intellectual writers who are not showing off. Elegant and to the point. But I am considering buying both books, especially because the second one sounds like what I was looking for - a general, sort-of-agreed-upon style guide.
Other than these two, the only guides I can find are mostly for a high school level of writing, i.e. "remember that you can use passive to mix things up sometimes" and similar tips.