I like this question! There are a lot of marketing type posts if you google "blog checklist," but I found a few useful references.
Here's one that has a lot more on the keeping-your-content-focused portions of the checklist, which may help you if trying to figure out if your blog posts are "enough"
As bloggers, we risk confusing our readers if we delve into various vaguely related subjects all in one blog post. ... There is nothing wrong with offering a plethora of tips or suggestions, but it needs to be tied together by one central theme.
Some of the others ways that readers will find value are:
- Case studies
- Actionable content
- Content that solves problems
- Content that holds additional resources
In multiple instances, I’ve found bloggers using out-of-date case studies and old resources. Circumstances change, some information becomes invalid, some information becomes more thorough. Bloggers need to check and re-check their sources before they publish.
This one seems to really think through a lot of the elements from brainstorming to editing the words: https://spinsucks.com/communication/ultimate-blog-checklist-guide/
Some of it is SEO focused, but it separates that process out from the content-creation element.
This one seems more SEO focused, but it has some strong content (just not as focused on the "writing" part of blogging):
the first 8 steps are about title/description/keywords, but it reminds you to check for "reputable" sources, and link to at least 2 (and it gives tips about judging "reputable" using Alexa), and also to link to a few of your OWN pages. Then several focused on images (giving credit, editing them, including ALT tags! yay accessability!), and then a few more on white-space, H tags, bulleted lists.
It does seem a lot of the checklists I found are about everything except the writing!