I'm using online sources for an essay for my DE History course, and we're required to use in-text citations when we quote or paraphrase sources, with the format of author-page number, like (Johnson 12). But the online articles that I'm citing don't exactly have tangible pages, so do I just use (Author) and leave off the page number, or something else?

1 Answer 1


The answer is two fold:

  1. Ask your teacher.
  2. Google it.

I can't ask your teacher for you, but I did a quick Google search. Since you added the tag, I assume that's the format required. So here's the official word:

Citing non-print or sources from the Internet

With more and more scholarly work being posted on the Internet, you may have to cite research you have completed in virtual environments. While many sources on the Internet should not be used for scholarly work (reference the OWL's Evaluating Sources of Information resource), some Web sources are perfectly acceptable for research. When creating in-text citations for electronic, film, or Internet sources, remember that your citation must reference the source in your Works Cited.

Sometimes writers are confused with how to craft parenthetical citations for electronic sources because of the absence of page numbers, but often, these sorts of entries do not require a page number in the parenthetical citation. For electronic and Internet sources, follow the following guidelines:

  • Include in the text the first item that appears in the Work Cited entry that corresponds to the citation (e.g. author name, article name, website name, film name).
  • You do not need to give paragraph numbers or page numbers based on your Web browser’s print preview function.
  • Unless you must list the Web site name in the signal phrase in order to get the reader to the appropriate entry, do not include URLs in-text. Only provide partial URLs such as when the name of the site includes, for example, a domain name, like CNN.com or Forbes.com as opposed to writing out http://www.cnn.com or http://www.forbes.com.
  • Also, make sure that the links provided look like they are going to be there for some time.
    – NofP
    Apr 9, 2019 at 10:48
  • yes, you can copy the link to web.archive.org 's Wayback Machine for a static copy. Apr 9, 2019 at 19:41

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