I want to give credit to a source without stating their full title again, because the full title is a mouthful.

Earlier in the paper, I had quoted them saying: "So-and-so states...[direct quotation]" ²

Now I want to quote them saying just: "[direct quotation]" ²

I'm going to use their exact wording (in the second attribution), but only attribute it with the "²". In other words, it's a direct quote, but I'm not saying that it's a direct quote, I'm only listing the "²". Is this OK from the angle of professional attribution?

  • 2
    Are you talking about an academic paper? A journalistic article? Some other form? Commented Mar 5, 2019 at 14:01
  • Welcome to Writing.SE Micah. I echo Galastel's request. We'd like to know the genre of the paper 1) because the answer changes depending on what it is and 2) so we can tag it properly (tags help users find questions and also help when skimming questions).
    – Cyn
    Commented Mar 5, 2019 at 17:43

4 Answers 4


Assuming it's an academic paper, it's perfectly fine to just add the number to the quote.

The number will redirect the reader to the full source, presumably at the bottom of your page or in your bibliography section. You already "introduced" the author in the previous citation, no need to do it twice.


If it is more journalistic than academic, I would treat it as:

John Jacob Jeremih, Junior Jewel Judge at the Ingrid Irving Institute for Horological Hubris stated, "first direct quote, crystallizing your argument". Further analysis, opinion, more 5-W's, tightly wrap up to the unassailable argument, and give the reader a chance to appreciate how brilliant you are.

But now, a new argument surprising all with novelty and obviousness, brought home by a quote. John further suggests, "another direct quote supporting your inciteful variant on the original point".

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    Agreed. Except the second cite would use the Judge's last name, not first. And probably the title too. So "Judge Jeremih further suggests..." or "Jeremih further suggests..."
    – Cyn
    Commented Mar 5, 2019 at 17:40

In scholarly papers, it is common to put the details of the source of the quote in a footnote. In the body of the text you just give such description as necessary to make the flow of the text make sense. This could be a lot of detail, "Dr Fred Jones of the Fwacbar Institute of Technology wrote a paper in which he explained ..." Or it could be as general as, "One expert wrote ..." If the reader wants to know the details, he can look at the footnote.

As cmm indicates, in journalism, where you normally don't use footnotes, it's common to give a fair amount of detail on the first reference to a person, and then after that to just give a very brief indication of his identity. Like "Dr Fred Jones, a nuclear physicist at the Fwacbar Institute of Technology, has said ..." And then if you mention him later just say "Jones also wrote ..."

Minor quibble with cmm: You usually use last names, not first names. No serious article would say, "Al formulated the theory of relativity ..." They'd write, "Einstein formulated ..."


Adding a cautionary answer to go along with the existing ones:

The method used will depend on the style guide you are writing under - There is no one blanket statement for how to address this issue under an unspecified style guide, and attempts to do can readily lead students astray.

Some of them are annoying and seemingly arbitrary, but if a paper is requested to be written in a specific style, then it is important to read, understand, and follow that style guide. Some professors and organizations will let such things slide as unimportant, some will use it as a mark against your work while still accepting it, and the strictest will happily bin your paper at the first failure to conform to specification. - Find out which of these is the case before getting lax with specifications and submitting a paper.

[Even if you're not writing to a set style guide as a requirement, it is usually good practice to pick one and stick with it anyway. Helps establish consistent habits in final editing.]

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