I have an assignment that requires one academic journal source, and I found the records for a journal. The article in question is from a previously published book, but was published in the journal article as a section. This is that article. I just need to know if this is considered a book source or a journal source.

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If a work was published in more than one place, you only have to cite it once. You can pick which publication to cite.

Edited to add comment from another answer:

Original source vs secondary source applies to works that are quoted or described in another work. In this case, the very same article was published both in a book and in an academic journal. Unless I'm reading the OP wrong... If it really is the same article, and it wasn't edited in a way that is significant to the OP, then it's okay to use either source. Just like if you cite a poem it is okay to find it in Norton's Anthology instead of looking up the original book (so long as it's republished in full).

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