One of the hallmark features of the television show Lost was the way in which each character's backstory was rendered. The narrative started out in present day and depicted characters making certain decisions that, to the audience, seem unexplained. In parallel, the character's backstory would be provided, so that the narrative would weave back and forth between the two time periods. As the backstory would unfold, some of those mysterious decisions would start to make perfect sense.
This sort of structure opens up interesting dramatic opportunities when the author ties the two timelines together, as the character's present-day actions are shown to be reflective of (or in reaction to) circumstances from the past; indeed, plot points from the present-day scenes seem to require resolution of plot points from the backstory, and are often presented in proximity for dramatic effect.
A similar narrative structure was used for the series Once (which was home to many of the veterans of the Lost cast and crew, including some of the writers) and is currently in use with the new series Lost in Space (at least in the beginning).
What is this form of narrative called?
Are there any literary examples?