Would the line:
"Peter!" cried his father.
make grammatical sense? It seems to work intuitively, but I'm just not sure. It's also a tough question to google, as it turns out, so any reply would be much appreciated.
Does the reader already know the father?
I'm not certain that matters, but i assume we do. In either case - Yes. You are introducing a character through another character.
This type of character introduction is similar to style #2 at the link.
The link provides an example of this type of introduction from Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness.
Absolutely. It had been done before, and maybe more often than we think.
“TOM!" No answer. "TOM!" No answer. "What's gone with that boy, I wonder? You TOM!" No answer.
(c) Mark Twain