If you're in a single character's viewpoint, you can use the viewpoint to convey the information.
At the start of the scene, the character has some intentions. How does the weather affect those intentions? Given the intentions, the character would notice certain things about the weather. Sensory details. How does the weather look, sound, smell, taste, and feel?
And the character would have some reaction to those sensory details, and the impact they might have, and how significant they are. The character would have opinions about the weather, given what the character is trying to accomplish.
Exercise 1. Try this exercise, which I learned from numerous of Kristine Kathryn Rusch's writing workshops:
Put your character in some specific place in that weather. Whatever the character's current intentions, those intentions are in the front of the character's mind.
Then write six paragraphs about that scene.
- In the first paragraph, use only the sense of sight.
- In the second paragraph, use only the sense of touch.
- In the third paragraph, use only the sense of sound.
- In the fourth paragraph, use only the sense of taste.
- In the fifth paragraph, use only the sense of smell.
In the sixth paragraph, use all five senses.
Write them as six individual descriptions of the same scene, as if you had thrown away the previous paragraphs.
This exercise gives you lots of vivid sensory details that you can use in your scene.
Exercise 2. Another helpful exercise (also from Kris):
Write three different scene openings, at least 250 words each. In each scenario, the viewpoint character is in some specific location in the weather you're trying to convey.
- The POV of a character who loves this weather.
- The POV of a character who hates this weather.
- The POV of a character who is neutral about this weather.
This exercise explores different characters' attitudes toward the same weather, and illustrates how attitude affects what sensory details a character notices.