I am required to use footnotes in a paper for the first time in my life, and I have run into the problem of how to properly cite it.

My question is, if I get multiple facts from the same source, when/where do I place the footnote? I know with in-text citation you can just place one right after each fact you need to cite, but I'm not sure if this is how you use footnotes.

For example, using in-text citations I could type blah blah blah (Smith, 2013). blah blah blah (Smith, 2013). So on and so forth. However, when using footnotes, how would I cite this?


2 Answers 2


You would use Ibid for this: https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ibid. If the additional quote is on a different page, you would put "Ibid," followed by the page number. If the additonal quote is on the same page, you would just put "Ibid."


[1] Huxley, Aldous, Brave New World (Chatto and Windus, 1932), 35.

[2] Ibid, 39.

  • 1
    The use of "ibid" is now discouraged by most style manuals. In electronic formats, changes can make the notes highly confused if this method is used. Commented Jul 5, 2021 at 20:06

The appropriate approach depends entirely on the style one is using for a given document. Each style has its own conventions. While another answer to this question suggests the use of ibid (Latin meaning "in the same place"), The Chicago Manual of Style 17th ed. for example states that "ibid is now discouraged in favor of shortened citations." Thus, according to that very common style ibid is not the preferred method.

A definitive answer to the question requires knowing the style to which the document must conform. From there, it is a matter of consulting the appropriate style guide and adhering to the convention of that style. Consulting a style guide is fundamental to learning to write according to a defined style.

When writing with footnotes or parenthetical inline citation styles, I strongly encourage the use of a reference manager like Zotero which can address the lion's share of style mechanics leaving the author to concentrate more on content. As writing is editing, obviously one must check what is produced by the reference manager. However, Zotero for example is quite accurate and up to date for most common citation styles.

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