You'll find that a lot of the 'rules' of writing can be boiled down to what works for you. There are different ways to write. When giving advice, writers tend to assume you write the way they do, and offer rules for that method. Those 'rules' might work for them, but not for you. So it always comes down to writer preference.
For example, some writers (in my opinion, most) write on the fly. I call these writers discovery writers, or pantsers (as they write 'by the seat of their pants'). They get a general direction for the story, and then write it out. They wait a week, scrap everything they didn't like, and write it again. Repeat a few times, edit, and you have a novel (disclaimer: highly simplified). These people don't want to edit chapter by chapter, and neither should they. It interrupts the flow of writing. It removes them from the story. That can be disastrous for a writer.
A different kind of writer plans out their novel extensively beforehand. They get a very detailed outline, they develop their characters, they work on the plot, and then they start writing. I call these writers plotters, and it sounds like you might be one to some extent. I am as well. For plotters, it can be a good idea to edit chapter by chapter, making sure everything is fitting where you know it should go. Make sure you included everything in chapter B that you needed. If you find the flow of the story is going somewhere else and you like the direction it's taking, you might want to go back to your outline and see if you should rework some things.
But again, it simply comes down to what works for you.
I will say that you should always go through the whole thing when it's written, at least once. No matter how simple the story, you will find things that need some fine-tuning. Bits of dialogue won't match up, you'll find loose ends you didn't realize were there, and sometimes facts will outright contradict each other.
Plotter vs. Pantser
If you are a plotter (and I suspect you are), then do not assume you need to write the drafts of a pantser. Writing drafts is an automatic part of writing for a lot of people, but plotters are different. When we create an outline and go over and over it, we are creating a very rough draft. The more times we go through it and tweak things, the more we are narrowing down those first few drafts. When we finally start writing, we have a very good idea of where we are headed and how to get there. The most rewriting you will have to do is removing/adding/redoing a few chapters. But not the whole thing.
The reason for this is simple. When a pantser writes, they have only a very general idea of the story. They write to discover the story (hence the term discovery writer). Their first few drafts are there simply to figure out the plot, get familiar with the characters, and determine motivations and such. As a plotter, you've already done this.
All that being said, if you feel you need to rewrite the whole thing, do not hesitate to do so. There is always going to be a difference between how things play out in your head, and how they actually happen on paper. It could very well be that you have to redo the outline, and then rewrite the whole thing. But this is rare.
A final note: you mentioned that you can get too attached to your writing. That is something that you need to overcome. You need to practice looking at your writing objectively, and knowing which parts are genuinely helping the story, and which parts you just want to keep around because you like them. Fearlessly cut what you have to, and fearlessly keep what helps the story.
If it helps, tell yourself that when your novel is published and successful, you can release the cut parts to your avid fans. I do it (the telling, not the releasing that is), and it hasn't failed so far.
Good luck in your endeavors!