An academic paper is referred to as using the authors name and publication year.
- Smith (2008) studied the property of blah-blah
- Smith and Johnson (2013)'s article investigated blah-blah
- Johnson et al.(2009)'s paper studies blah-blah
Here I wonder what is the correct spacing between the name(s) and year (in the parenthesis) and between year and "'s".
In #1. putting a space between Smith and (2008) looks natural, but in #2, it is weird because there is a space between Johnson and "'s". (Without (2013), it becomes "Johnson 's")
Is there any clear rule or common practice for this?