I have the title for a map that shows point locations distributed across a beach where biologists will count the number of clams. The claims will be harvested and used as bait in a crab fishery. Should the title be Bait-Clam Survey or Bait Clam Survey?
I would go with "Bait-Clam Survey". Generally you hyphenate when the two or more words coming before the noun form a compound adjective. Because "bait-clam" is acting as a single adjective they should be hyphenated.
For more information on hyphenation see: http://www.grammarbook.com/punctuation/hyphens.asp