Do I need permission from the owners of a building to depict a drawing of it on the cover of my novel?
There are a lot of different things to consider. First, the picture itself if drawn would be your property so you don't really have to worry about that aspect of it, however it may depend on the type of property, and the type of ownership the property has. You could avoid the issue entirely by changing a thing or two about the building itself, such as an extra window, a few extra steps, and writing a disclaimer that anything that depicts real life is coincidence or something like that.
If you previously owned the property, you are probably safe, but as a courtesy it may be polite to ask, though I don't think it is necessary.
If it is owned by multiple people, or a corporation, or a government agency, you may run into more issues and if it were deemed a security risk how it was depicted you may run a greater risk. In this case I definitely would recommend depicting publically viewable perspectives of the property, and altercating something in the depiction as previously mentioned to protect yourself.
I would say the safest way to check yourself would be to look up the property on the internet, whatever is viewable via a search of the property is going to be safe to depict as is, and you should not run any problems.
These are just my recommendations, but I do not have legal credentials, and am only speaking from personal experience on how I would handle this specific situation. Hope this is helpful! Good luck.