I've been looking into Chromebooks for their portability and cost and was wondering what kind of writing tools, if any, exist on the platform that could be used to write larger projects without making one go insane.
That very much depends on what you need to write with.
If you need the likes of Scrivener then you are going to have some issues working efficiently on a Chromebook (I'm not sure what Chrome apps there are)
However, if you can adapt your writing style to what you have available you will find that there are many tools available.
Personally I have found that google docs to be a perfectly functional word processor for writing in. The ability to create a a metadata file with links etc works well enough.
Remember that even in this modern world there are still a large number of authors who use a typewriter, or a pen and paper.
Its all about your approach and how you organise it. Maybe sidestepping the technology will let you focus more on what you're writing (I know it did for me)
Of course your mileage will vary...