Hypothetically speaking, of course...
Let's say I write a work of fiction. It could be construed as highly disparaging to one or more demographics especially if you stop reading within the first few chapters where it's really bad for that particular demographic. That's not my personal view of the world or the demographic, it's just part of the story I wish to tell.
This kind of thing isn't new; there are plenty of books, some called classics of literature, others topping best-seller lists, that were and/or still are highly controversial for their subject matter. Fifty Shades of Grey is the obvious example today, especially with its barely-avoiding-an-NC17 movie adaptation. Anne Rice is well-known for her series of vampire novels beginning with Interview With a Vampire; what's less well-known is that she wrote a trilogy (and then a fourth continuation just this year) of much more explicitly erotic fiction loosely based on the Sleeping Beauty fairy tale under the pseudonym "A. N. Roquelaure", and only a decade after the first three were published did she acknowledge her authorship.
First off, not trying to get too far ahead here but it has to be considered, given this is my first attempt at a full-length novel, would it be published as such if I were to refuse to allow my real name or image to be associated with it? Anne Rice was a known quantity and adopted the nom de plume primarily to avoid the feminist backlash she knew would result from the work at the time. That same backlash is even louder today and I would prefer to be anonymous as long as I can be, but will that even fly for a first-time author?
Second, assuming it is published with or without any traceability to my real-world identity, how do you deal with the backlash of a book with controversial subject matter? I might head off the worst of it with a preface giving me a bully pulpit to explain myself, but beyond that, how do you answer people who refuse to consider a work of fiction as anything less than the author's personal manifesto of belief? Do you even try?