I wonder what the proper way of writing this question is:
- What do the data show?
- What does the data show?
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What does the data show?
data is a collective noun (though I am not 100% sure on that). Collective nouns are plural only when the context is speaking of their individual parts, or members. Otherwise they are singular. Therefore, you would use
does, which is the singular form of the verb
Now if you were to say:
What do the data records show?
Things would be different, because you are referring to the members of the data (records).