Professional typesetters usually use Adobe InDesign.
I write novels in a program called Scrivener. I normally export from Scrivener directly into MOBI and EPUB (for ebooks), which is supported by Scrivener.
For my print books, I would normally export from Scrivener into Microsoft Word, and then give the Word file to my designer, who would use InDesign.
I'm a programmer by day, and a writer by night, so I decided to see if I could build a solution to automatically typeset the printed book. I exported HTML from Scrivener, wrote some Ruby code to structure the HTML, then styled everything using CSS, and used a program called PrinceXML to turn that into a PDF. However, like LaTeX, this is a complicated, technical solution.
Depending how complicated your book is (just words or lots of structured information and/or graphics), you may be able to hire a designer for as little as $200 or as much as $1000.
If you aren't technical, and can't afford a designer, you can do a reasonable job using Microsoft Word if you take the time to learn all the print design principles.